Case Study

Case Study on Dam Automation

Posted on Jan 19, 2015 by MSPL. .. 42 comments.

Bhatsa Dam Automation Project


The purpose of the Dam is to provide drinking water to B.M.C. 1.365 M.Cum per day and Irrigation 23,000 Hectares. The capacity of Left Bank canal is 10.428 Cumecs and Right bank canal is 27.532 Cumecs. Flood absorption capacity from R.L. 142.07 m to R.L. 145.07 m is 80.424 M.Cum. The gate operation schedule is prepared in order to maintain flood discharge from the catchments area smoothly.The Catchment area is located in the heavy rainfall area varying from 0 to 114.50 mm per hour. The rainfall generally starts in the last week of May and continues upto 15th October. Therefore, the gates shall be operated during the rainy season in order to maintain R.O.S. level of Dam.

Before establishing a new System:

     Manual rainfall measurement

     Manual River stage gauging

     No communication means

     Reservoir Level from gauges

     Gate Measurement very crude methods

     Manually Performed calculations based on historical data

     Considering the scenario, Flood forecasting and Dam automation is a necessity.


Strategies for System Implementation:

Flood Forecasting and Management with Dam Automation system

    Local data collection, Analysis, Monitoring &control system is provided for spillway radial gates of Bhatsa Dam.

    Remote data collection, Analysis, Monitoring for inflow forecasting, and flood management system will be established.

    Remote data collection, analysis, monitoring and control system for water distribution management & flow metering for Bhatsa Dam.

    Establishing Remote Monitoring system at divisional head quarter at Bhatsanagar including electrical items for automation system.

Features of the system:

     Real-time inflow forecasting based on rainfall data and river levels

     Automatic control of Spillway gates for Flood Routing as per ROS & Gate operation Schedule

     Automatic Remote control of Canal Head Regulator gates from control room as per the Rotation Planning

     Event Logging and Responsibility Assignment


Operation of the system:

     Data logger measures reservoir level and send data to the data center after every 15 minutes.

     Level sensor is used as per site condition such as radar, shaft encoder, bubbler sensor.

     All data is stored locally after every 15 minutes.

     User can view all data locally

  Reservoir Level Station

     This unit is designed for collection, storage and transmission of water level from remote Stations to control room.

     This is Micro controller based Digital Water Level Recorder reflect state of the art in micro controller based instrumentation design.

     The micro controller has its internal memory along, a real time clock with an LCD to display the instrument status.

     Digital Water Level Recorder consist of a weatherproof enclosure which contains the data logger and power supply, and comes complete with a solar panel / mains supply. Level sensor also consists of a weatherproof enclosure.

     The system is powered by rechargeable sealed maintenance free batteries with integral solar panel, which will easily keep the batteries charged throughout the year.


River/Stage Discharge Station

     Data logger measures river level, calculate stage discharge and send data to the data center after every 15 minutes.

     Level sensor is used as per site condition such as radar, shaft encoder, bubbler sensor.

     All data is stored locally after every 15 minutes.

     User can view all data locally.


Rain fall Station

     Data logger measures rainfall & send data to the data center after every 15 minutes.

     Rainfall is stored locally after every 15 minutes.

     Data logger shows data such as today's rainfall, total rainfall on local HMI screen.

     Total rainfall automatically reset on 1st June.


Gate Positioning Sensor

     The positions of the gates of the dams should be measured to calculate he discharge through gates. It could be spillway gates, irrigation/power outlets

     Gate positions would correspond to the discharge of water, and concerned authorities would operate the gates depending on the flood forecast.

     In case of notification of incoming flood in advance, the dam lake is emptied through dam gates, so that the incoming flood can be accommodated in the reservoir.

     Also if there are a series of cascade of dams on a river, gate positions and discharge of one dam would be communicated to the next dam.

     MECH-GMS is specially designed measurement system for radial, vertical and screw type gates. This can be interfaced with variety of sensors like leaner encoders, rotary encoders, absolute encoders and optical encoders. Special function for conversion of radial gate opening to vertical opening


Gate Control System

     For the centralized operation of the spillway radial gates from the control room, centralized hoist motor control cubicle with automatic and manual interlocking is provided in the control room.

     The Gate Control system can be operated from the master control station through the VHF network, which is a two way communication media. The Gates can be operated to manage the water outflow

     The Gates can be also be operated manually from the Dam control station, using the control system.


Real Time Data Control and Monitoring Software

     The MECH SCADA Software is a complete automation solution providing graphical visualization, Data acquisition and Supervisory Control for field instrumentation.

     It comprises of host of software automation solutions including remote telemetry systems, remote terminal units (RTU), programmable logic controllers (PLCs) which are typically installed in remote areas. Communication is over long distances to the host system.

     Objects in the picture are linked to specific measurement or control data in the database to allow viewing of real time data. The objects are also animated to show, for example, the level of water in a Reservoir, Weir, Canal level or flow, Tank or the position of gate or valve. In addition, multiple colors are used to show whether the parameter is in or out of alarm condition.

     In addition to providing real time data, several tools are included for viewing historical data and generating Maintenance & Management reports.

     An event scheduler is provided for performing tasks at specific times, such as generating & printing reports.

     Facility for Exporting reports in PDF, Excel or Access formats.

     The function of the DAS is to interface with all the sensors and store the data with time stamping. It has GPS clock to synchronize events between different stations. It will log data for long periods for e.g. 365 days.

     It is capable of running in remote environments and runs on solar power.

     It can interface with various wireless networks like VSAT, INSAT, GPS/GPRS, VHF. It will be able to transmit the information at regular programmable intervals.

     Computerized remote control system for Flood routing will utilize the parameters / data received from the monitoring system.

     Control the power outlet gates and spillway gates in such a fashion that the flood passing through river will be moderated without affecting dam safety.

     While routing the flood all parameters like rainfall in the catchment area, likely inflow, travel time, levels in the dams on u/s and d/s, etc., will be taken into account.

     The Decision Support Software (DSS) will automatically adjust the gate openings of spillway radial gates.

     The gate positions will be periodically modified on the basis of received / calculated data in close loop fashion.

     The Decision Support Software will operate the spillway gates taking into account gate operation schedule.

     While calculating the discharges reservoir operation schedule will be taken into account.

The software continuously

     Calculates actual inflow using change in reservoir level, expected inflow based on the rainfall and provided rainfall run-off relationship.

     Displays received / calculated data on the monitor along with the graphical representation of spillway gates.

     Calculates the time to reach MWL and FRL considering inflow rate.

     Calculates discharge required to be let out and accordingly repositions the gate taking into considerations gate operation schedule..

     Annunciates to the system operator in the abnormal event such as heavy rainfall, heavy inflow, crossing of pre-set downstream constrains, failure of any gate etc.

     Based on expected inflow and travel time to reach to reservoir, system takes decision considering downstream conditions, reservoir operation schedule, and gate operation schedule, so as not to cause any damage to lives or properties.

     For creating accommodation capacity for impinging flood, the system will activate switchgear to adjust the extent of gate opening to release the water at moderate rate.

 Outcomes and Resulted Benefits:

     Optimization of water storage

     Real time remote reservoir monitoring and control

     Instantaneous Decision making

     Well advanced flood forecasting

     Efficient flood routing

     Increase in power generation

     Safety of dam structures

     Reduction / Elimination of man-made errors

     Easy and efficient model analysis for further use

     Single room control for reservoir operation.

     Reduction in operational costs.

     Increased crop production

     Better service to the water users

     Labour savings

     Easy management of the water system

     Reduced maintenance requirements

     Fish and wildlife enhancement

     Decreased flood damage

     Better response to emergencies

     Water Savings and Revenue rise by about 25 to 30%

     Losses due to human negligence are stopped